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A Book Report and Case Briefings Name Institution Section One Chapter 7 The Fourth Amendment requires that valid warrants and probable cause be the governing principles for all searches. However, the U.S. Supreme Court has come up with special needs that do not recognize the warrants and probable cause. The special needs after striking a balance between the governments needs and individual liberties. These special needs arise in day-to-day activities of a country. For instance, a sovereign state will allow people to come into her boarders for trade and other reasons. The state must conduct searches at the international border points to protect the citizens. The state conducts such searches without warrants or probable cause. In this case, the special need is to maintain security, which is beyond X-ray or metal detector scans. The government is supposed to maintain discipline, safety and security among prisoners in jails or other institutions. This need for the government supersedes the prisoners privacy. Prisoners are also part of the Fourth Amendment, but they must undergo strip and body cavity searches. This is because it is a reasonable search with the aim of maintaining securi

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