Diabetes Mellitus: Causes And Effect

Diabetes Mellitus is considered one of the major health threats diseases that affect people nowadays. It affects both genders male and female within different age group. However, it is mainly occurs as a result of insulin secretion disorder. Every person is different, so Diabetes Mellitus treatment will be tailored to needs. There are lists of common drugs prescribed in Bahrain clinics which are along with a proper diet and exercise help in controls high glucose level in the blood and also help in reduce complication of Diabetes Mellitus such as kidney damage, eye blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes Mellitus also reduces the risk of a stroke and heart attacks. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic medical condition, mean in controlled it is restore life time. There are two major type of Diabetes Mellitus known as type 1(IDDM) or Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus and type 2 (NIDM). This topic was selected to obtain more details regarding this disease to help people in elevate their knowledge and awareness about Diabetes Mellitus prevention to reduce its complication.

This paper on Diabetes Mellitus in both genders will include general information of the disease, symptoms, causes and risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, the effects, treatment and prevention of the disease will also be considered in this paper. Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are two main kinds of Diabetes Mellitus are type 1(IDDN), type 2 (NIDM), and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus considered as a hired type only during pregnancy.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes or Juvenile diabetes, it is usually diagnosed in children and teenagers. In this kind of diabetes, the beta cell of the pancreas failed in produce insulin because the body’s immune system has attacked and destroyed them. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin pump, diet healthy food, regular exercise, control blood pressure and cholesterol. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes, formerly known adult-onset or non insulin dependent diabetes most common kind of diabetes. People can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even childhood. This form of diabetes usually starts with insulin resistance, a condition in which fat, muscle, and liver cells do not utilized insulin properly. At first, the pancreas adjusts with the added demand by producing more insulin. In time, however, it loses the ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals. People who are overweight and inactive are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Treatment includes taking diabetes medicines, control healthy diet, regular exercise, control blood pressure and cholesterol, and taking aspirin daily. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Some women develop gestational diabetes late in pregnancy peroid. Although this Kind of diabetes usually disappear after the baby is born, a woman who has had gestational diabetes is at risk to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or deficiency of insulin.

Signs and symptoms

The early symptoms of untreated diabetes are related to elevated blood glucose levels, and loss of glucose in the urine. Increase glucose in the urine cause excessive urine output which lead to dehydration. Dehydration causes increased of thirst and water consumption. The inability of insulin to perform normally has effects on protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin is an anabolic hormone, that is, encourages storage of fat and protein. Insulin deficiency leads to weight loss despite an increase in appetite. Some un treated diabetes patients also complain of fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Patients with diabetes are easily developing infections of the bladder, skin, and vaginal areas. Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can cause blurred vision. Extremely elevation of glucose levels can lead to lethargy and coma. The inability of insulin to perform normally has effects on protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

Causes and effects of drugs for diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is major health problem in whole world nowadays. It has been affecting both sexes; males and females with in all age group. Infarct, there are certain causes that lead people to use anti high per glycemia medications for type 2 and human insulin for type1, like heredity, social status and psychological condition. In addition, there are also certain effects resulted from misused of diabetes drug such as complications of diseases.

To begin with, there are several causes that lead people to become diabetes mellitus. .First of all, many people get diabetes mellitus because of heredity. For example, genetic and hormonal problem lead people to get type2 and specially type 1 diabetes mellitus. The life style of some people also plays a role in being diabetes mellitus type2.If people do not practice enough or proper exercise and they are not aware of the quality and quantity of the food, they will certainly end up in raising their blood glucose.

Last but not least, the psychological condition has a great influence on some people to become diabetes mellitus specially those who suffer from certain emotional or stress problems. As a result of above, there are certain effects that might result from being diabetes mellitus.

To start with, diabetes people always suffer from some diseases such as blindness to, kidney failure, disease atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and strokes.

Genetic Risk Factor

Diabetes Mellitus has grater risk among type 1 (Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus) whose parent or relative side have history of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), (David K, 2008).

Social Risk Factor

The life style of some people also plays a role in being diabetes mellitus type2.If people do not practice enough or proper exercise and they are not aware of the quality and quantity of the food. There also another risk factor which is over weight or obesity which play a big role in Diabetes Mellitus especially type 2 (NIDM).

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Risk Factor

Women who have gestational diabetes during their pregnancy are more prone to get diabetes Mellitus type 2 (NIDM) in future. And complication of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus lead to get big birth baby weight, defect of lung surfactant which cause a respiratory distress syndrome , shoulder dystocia , and cesarean suction delivery to prevent further complication of both mother and baby.

Diabetes Mellitus diagnostics Test

The fasting blood glucose test is the way to diagnose diabetes after the person has fasten overnight for eight hours, a sample of blood collection for analysis .Normal fasting blood glucose is lower than (100 mg/dl) which call A/C sugar and if A/C sugar is higher than 126 mg/dl on two or more test on different days is diagnosed as diabetes. Then had breakfast and after two hours second blood sample which known P/C sugar or random sugar , a blood glucose level around 200( mg/dl) or high indicate as diabetes.

HBA1C Test

This test is usedfor diagnosis, an elevated level of glucose irreversibly bound hemoglobin (termed glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c) of 6.0% or higher is known as abnormal finding by most hospitals laboratories. HBA1C is a therapy and treatment test which reflects blood picture of glucose level over preceding ninety days is the average lifetime or red blood cell which consists of hemoglobin; some doctor’s request this type of test during diagnosis to evaluate changes of HBA1C, the range recommended for glycated hemoglobin is 6.5% in diabetes patient.

Complication of Diabetes Mellitus

Kidney Complications in diabetes

Diabetes affect kidney and it normal function, the urine test done to measure the quantity of the protein (albumin) in urine that is to determine kidney function affected by the especially kidney filteration, presence albumin is early indicator of kidney complication is a nephropathy. the regular checkup especially for type one diabetes mellitus after five years from diagnosis and for type two at the time of diagnosis and if the test show presence of protein in the urine preventive measures should be considered .

Hypertension and related complication in diabetes

Most diabetes clients complain of high blood pressure, elevation of blood pressure stresses the cardiovascular system, by causesing some symptoms which helped to increase development of diabetic complications such as kidney and eye. High blood pressure diagnose by measuring blood pressure on a regular basis. Normal reading is 130/80. Diabetic people who are not suffer of kidney complication to reduce blood pressure 120/75 as well as for people complain of kidney complication.

Cardiovascular Complications

There are certain factors helped to increase cardiovascular complication such as smoking cigarettes, uncontrol blood pressure, highperlipidemia and alcohol consumption. Lifestyle stresses increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which can cause myocardial infarction (heart attack), angina (chest pain), stroke, and death.

Retinopathy Complications

It is amicrovascular disease with no signs or symptoms, and I is common disease cause blindness in diabetes mellitus both types 1 and type 2.which detected by retinal examination, by proper treatment, well control blood glucose level and early detection help to prevent loss of vision.

Neuropathy Complictions

It is a microvascular disease as a result of nerve ischemia, the nerve function affect due to increase glucose level in the blood. There are different types such as autonomic, neuropathy mononeuropathy, radiculopathy and symmetric polyneuropathy (with small- and large-fiber variants). The common type is the symmetric polyneuropathy which affect distal hand and feet. It manifests as, paresthesisa, dysesthesias, orapainless of sense touch and vipration. And the symptoms of lower extremities as follow cause foot traumma froil-fitting shoes and abnormal weight bearing which cause foot ulceration and infection or fracture. (Jill. P, 2007).


Controlling blood sugar is necessary to avoid future complications of Diabetes Mellitus there are certain ways of treatments help to control elevation of blood glucose level will start now with medication that used in diabetes mellitus management first of all is:

Insulin therapy

Insulin is use as treatment in both types of diabetes mellitus especially for type one which works as insulin replacement therapy. There are several types of insulin help in control high blood sugar , the most common types such as Actropid , NPH , Lantus and Novopen insulin . And the more popular types of oral hypoglycemia like for example tablet Metaformin 500 mg and 1000 mg, tablet Dionail 5 mg and 10 mg and table 30 mg.

Exercise Therapy Program

Physical activity helps in transportation of sugar in to the body cell, which is use for energy the more use of exercise help to reduce high blood sugar, and makes the insulin receptors or cells more sensitive to the hormone thus improves the utilization of available glucose more over it is also improve blood circulation and cardiovascular fitness, reduced blood hyperlipedemia. Physical activity also promotes weight reduction and help to reduce tension and stress.

Foot Care Prevention Program

Diabetes Mellitus affect blood circulation which leads reduction of blood supply to lower extremities and that change put the feet at high risk to develop potential complications. foot complications are more common regarding diabetes mellitus patient ,for that health care providers instruct diabetes patients to do home self examination to their foot.

Foot Self Exam

Advise Diabetes Mellitus people to examine their feet daily, full feet and especially between the toes. And to look for any cut wound, ulcer and broken skin or change color this examination can be done during bath time. A mirror can help in examination or one of family member.

In conclusion there are certain causes and risk factors that lead to diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem, and considered to be silent illnesses which affect all body parts .Therefore people should be aware their illness and it is complication and also identified the types of diabetes mellitus with some common types of medication. Finally, show also the causes and effects of the disease and how to diagnose the disease.

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