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(A paper advising on effective leadership practices at MyCommuniCo Company)

To be presented to:

The CEO, MyCommuniCo

Name of student

Name of instructor

Course name and code

Name of institution



This paper purposes at discussing the Bass theory of transformational leadership, and the Wallace and Halls mode of team working, in relation to their application to a company by name, MyCommuniCo. The theories are explored, and a review of the literature explored to gather views of other researches about the two models of leadership. A total of eleven studies have been reviewed. The results show that adoption of the two theories and applying them at different levels, in the organization, is the best method to promote effective leadership. The paper thus recommends teamworking in the organization and transformational leadership in the teams.


Title page……………………………………………………………………………………….…1

Executive summary…………………………………………………………….………………….2

Table of contents…………………………………………………………….……………….……3


Exploration of the theories……………………………………………….………………………..4

Application of the theories…………………………………………………….…………………..6

Evaluation and recommendations………………………………………………………………….7




Effective leadership is very essential part of organizational performance in the realization of goals. Application of effective principles of leadership has been found to produce good results for organizations, in the long term and in the short term. However, this is not to say that, application of effective leadership does not experience challenges. It experiences challenges, but the leaders identify the problem and counter it before adverse effects are realized. The case of MyCommuniCo is not different. Having operated for over 10 years, this is a period long enough for a big organization like this to experience challenges. The departmentalization of the organization to almost independent units can also pose a challenge. The lucky side about MyCommuniCo is that the problem has been identified. This points to the possibility of applying the principles of effective leadership; and the theories of leadership, to realize success, in the organization. This paper discusses the application of models of leadership to correct the situation in the organization, MyCommuniCo. The paper is divided into sections to the Bass theory of transformational leadership, as well as, the Wallace and Hall’s leadership model in teamworking. The essay will compare these theories, and critically analyze their application and effectiveness in the situation like the one being experienced by MyCommuniCo. The paper will finally make recommendations for leadership improvements based on these theories. The following section is aimed at exploring the two theories, as well as, supporting them from various other studies.


For a deeper understanding of these two models of leadership, they are introduced separately, and then discussed together. The model of leadership through teamwork proposed by Wallace and Halls focused on distribution of leadership and shared responsibility (Wallace and Hall 1994 P. 191). The two authors of the model advocate for the application of the school of thought on teams in the leadership and management in the organization. The work of Igen and Kozlowski (2006), and the work of Gronn (2002) support the school of thought on teamwork leadership, in organizations. In his support and recommendation of the shared leadership, as proposed by Wallace and Halls, Gronn (2002), advocates for distribution of the power, and authority into units. These units are the ones that the authors of the original model, Wallace and Hall called teams. Leadership through units can be practiced through a departmentalization, like the case of MyCommuniCo. The model advocates for devolution of authority to make sure that the units, or departments, enjoy a healthy autonomy in order to be productive. However, through a productive culture of organizational behavior of check-ups and controls, as proposed by Judge and Robbins (2011), the units should be checked and controlled, so that the autonomy and independence do not become unhealthy. The practice of excess autonomy and independence in an organization, like in the case of MyCommuniCo, can lead to underperformance, resulting to poor realization of organizational goals.

On his part Bass (1998), on his theory of transformational leadership, advocates for a style of leadership that is based on influencing people. He advocates a method of transforming the organization, through inspiring the employees and the juniors, to sing the song of the management at whatever costs. The theory focuses and directs concern to the degree into which a manager, or a leader, influences people in an organization. Bass outlines the qualities of a leader that will enable them influence employees as honesty, trust, and reliability. These, according to Bass, attract loyalty and obedience from the workers. The loyal and obedient workers are then highly likely to be influenced by the management or the leadership. Bass argues that the leader can only influence the followers, if only they possess these characteristics. The leader in this case is the role model. In supporting his model, Bass proposed the aspects that a leader who aims at influencing followers should consider. Firstly, consideration of individual needs and aspirations is very effective in influencing people. The argument of the model is that the leader should be quick to identify the needs of the specific members of their organization or teams, and act quickly to address them. In this case, the leader needs to act as both a facilitator and a mentor.

The second aspect proposed by Bass (1998); and Bass and Riggio (2006), and Bass and Ruth (2008), is stimulating and challenging the members intellectually, towards discovery and innovation, in solving of organizational challenges. This aspect aims at ensuring that, all the members are involved in decision making. Another way of looking at the aspect, is whereby a leader seeks the opinions and suggestions of group members, and challenges the members to make a move in implementing them. This empowers the members and gives the morale needed to cooperate with the management. At such a level, it is easy for the leadership to influence the followers.

The third aspect of transformational leadership proposed by Bass (1998) is providing a vision to the organization, team or group. Research shows that a leadership that is visionary, impacts a group to a large extent (Judge & Robbins, 2011). Providing a vision for the group, is giving the group purpose and a reason to work on the task they are supposed to work on. A group that knows the reason for carrying out a particular task is likely to perform better than one that has no vision.

The last aspect given by Bass concerning transformational leadership is a leader who is fully fledged to the course of change and transformation. A leader, who has the true sense of what the transformation they are preaching, means. Such a leader will practice the principles of honesty while working with their followers. The leader will also be concerned about the personal needs of the individuals, and not only the interests of the organization (Gronn 2002).

A degree of criticism is applicable in the two models of leadership discussed in this paper. For example, the model of shared leadership by Wallace and Halls (1994), has been widely applied and emphasized in the school setting. However, a research done by Louise et al. (2006) on learning communities, suggests that, the success of learners depend on the efforts of individual teachers and not group work. The researchers argue that building the capacity of individual learners is what matters, and not grouping the students or the teachers. These results are not in agreement with the propositions of Wallace and Hall. In spite of this, the results cannot discredit the contribution of teamwork in promoting effective leadership. The study by Igen and Kozlowski (2006), recommend highly, the application of teamwork in enhancing organizational performance. According to the authors, teamwork enhances encouragement of group members and promotes innovation in the group. It sets an environment where members of the group can empower one another, thus promoting organizational performance.

On the part or transformational leadership, critics have argued that there is a problem with the test effect, in the multifactor test questionnaire. The argument is that, the tests that are used to justify the theory are deficient to a greater extent, and cannot tell to what degree transformation is needed in a particular situation. Another problem with the theory is failure to address the extent to which a leader of a multinational organization can reach all the employees in order to empower and motivate them. The question is well applicable in a big organization like MycommuniCo. The morality of the values that the leaders should influence the followers with, is also a question of discussion. Muenjohn (n.d) argues that, sometimes, or in some scenarios, it may not be possible to determine which values are good to emulate, or to teach others. An example is a situation where religious values contradict. A particular religion may regard a value as being ethical, while it is considered unethical by another religion. Cultural values also contradict. It can be, therefore, pose some difficulty applying transformational theory in a global organization. Having discussed these theories and reviewed some literature supporting them, the following section looks at how they can be applied in the case of MyCommuniCo.


The situation of MyCommunico is manageable and can be corrected to achieve the desired organizational goals. The proposition mad by Bass (1998), and Wallace and Hall (1994), can be combined and applied simultaneously to achieve the desired organizational performance. The combination of the two models will involve the application of transformational leadership into small groups. The shared leadership style proposed by Wallace and Hall, for example, can do very well considering the fact that an individual cannot possess all the skills of leadership. Distributing this leadership will see many talents combined to produce the best results. In his support of the teamwork leadership theory, Kocolowski (2010) presupposes that, the available literature documenting research findings on teamwork, show effectiveness in its application, in the sectors of education and health. The sectors have been known for a long time to apply the theory of teamworking, and have benefited greatly while tapping the benefits of shared leadership. The organizations that have applied the concept of teamwork leadership have also attempted to apply transformational leadership in their teams.

The departmentalization of MyCommuniCo places it at a very good position to apply the two proposed models of leadership in its realization of the set goals. The departments need to act as teams. When they act as teams, unity will be realized in each department. The model of team bonding and strengthening proposed by Igen and Kozlowski (2006) should be applied to make the teams, in this case departments, strong. Igen and Kozlowski propose a strong support and role-modelling of the team by the organizational leadership, and the leadership of the team. In essence, the proposition involves the practice of both theories to realize effective leadership.

The vastness of an organization like MyCommuniCo can pose a challenge in applying the theory proposed by Bass and Riggio (2006). This is where team leadership comes into play. However, after dividing the organization into teams, transformational leadership theory can be incorporated into the teams to make them productive and effective. Kocolowski (2010) brings out this idea very well. He argues that an individual cannot save a whole company, regardless of their level of gifting and talent. He presupposes that many organizations have had to learn the hard way, that shared leadership is the style of the day, in leadership. Judge and Robbins (2011) share the same sentiments. It might be that the same is happening to MyCommuniCo. To save this organization from a fall with a thud, transformational leadership has to be applied in teams. Many chief executives have had it wrong in applying one theory of leadership in organizational management (Kocolowski 2010). It has not worked. With these propositions, it seems the best way for MyCommuniCo to go, is by empowering the departments through the propositions of Bass (1998) as backed by Kocolowski (2010).

Another reason why team leadership is very recommendable is because it has existed since the old times, and has been found to yield results (Kocolowski 2010). This author gives an example of the republic of Rome, which used shared leadership for four successive centuries with a lot of success. The success of the leadership made it to be adopted to the higher ranks in the governance, up to the one of the Consul. However, this practice did not inspire many business leaders. In the world over, many businesses have existed reflecting the policies of the executive officer. Because of a culture of lack of consultations, when this member leaves the organization, it deteriorates. To prevent the same from befalling MyCommuniCo, it is to the interest of all the employees, customers and stakeholders that the organization adopts shared leadership in order to run effectively.

The problem of coordination cited in the case of MyCommuniCo, should not be blamed on departmentalization. Rather, the model of Wallace and Hall of teamwork leadership should be adopted in full measure, so that training of teams can be implemented to make the teams effective. According to Serfaty and Entin (2013), the adoption of organizational management using teams should be accompanied by training of the teams. The authors did a research on coordination of teams and found out that performance in an organization is greatly improved by adaptation training. The process of adaptation training according to the authors, entail the use of mental models which have been found to improve performance. The authors also recommend that, when team training is employed in teams, there is a likelihood of all employees holding onto common goals, thus improving organizational performance. Having looked at how these theories can be applied, the following section evaluates the recommendations of applying the styles in MyCommuniCo.


With the study and research that was made by Wallace and Hall about small management teams (Wallace & Hall 1994 P. 192), this model is highly recommended for implementation in MyCommuniCo. The authors did a research for over one year to evaluate the effectiveness of six small management teams. The prolonged period of the study allowed the authors to confirm that their propositions are true to their recommendations. The author’s results showed that the small teams operated very smoothly and the members even showed evidence of having enjoyed the experience of working in the teams. Going by this model, a teamwork style can be adopted in MyCommuniCo and employ the recommendations provided by the model of Wallace and Hall (1994) to make the teams effective. The authors recommend making sure that all the members in the small teams are aware of their individual responsibilities. At the same time, the small team should be aware of its role in the entire organization. This can be very well applicable in the department system, which is already in place at MyCommuniCo. To make sure that these departments stop unhealthy competition among themselves, the recommendations of this theory can be applied. For example, ground rule for consultations between the departments need to be laid out. Communication from the head office should be specific to a particular department. Wallace and Hall recommend that the members should be encouraged and role-modelled to keep the organization’s goals ahead of personal aspirations.

Looking at the transformational model of Bass (1998), it is also recommendable that the model be incorporated, but that it is implemented in the small teams. The model can work well in stages in the organization. This is evident in that, even the authors of teamwork model admit that “SMTs are not simply means to an end” (Wallace and Hall 1994 P. 194). There proposition is that, after sharing the leadership between the departments, the management has the role of applying inspirational principles to the teams, to keep the team spirit alive. Wallace and Hall agree that, in their study, members acknowledged inspiration and encouragements from their colleagues, and the team leaders. This is very consistent with the recommendation of the transformational leadership model proposed by Bass. In MycommuniCo, this can work very well by dividing work in specialized teams as departments, as per Wallace and Halls model; and inspiring the teams through the transformational leadership model, as proposed by Bass. The transformational style should be implemented from the top. The chief executive officer should influence the first line managers, who in turn influence their subordinates, until energy and ambition is instilled in the small teams. By adopting these two styles of leadership in this manner, effectiveness is going to be regained in MyCommuniCo.

The model of teamwork leadership by Wallace and Hall has been widely recommended. The authors cite Janis (1972) and Bottery (1992) in their work (1994) as a support of their theory. Judge and Robbins (2011) and Kocolowski (2010), as well as Igen and Kozlowski (2006) are other researchers who agree with this model. In my first employment before I joined this company, I was working in a fortune 500 company, which greatly relied on team leadership for success. On the other hand, the teams in the company relied too much with transformational leadership style. Adopting only one of these models will not work best for MyCommuniCo because it is a very big company. I recommend the adoption of the two models.


In conclusion, after evaluating the two theories and considering the case of MyCommuniCo, I recommend the adoption of the two models to achieve effective leadership in the company. However, the implementation should take the best aspects form each of the models. The idea of teams will work very well because MyCommuniCo is a very big organization. The departments are already in existence, but there is already a leadership lapse. This shows that there is something that needs to be done in the teams (departments). Influencing the leaders of the teams, who will in turn influence the team members, is what is needed. This will be in line with application of transformational style of leadership in the teams. The case states that MyCommuniCo has more than 500 employees. A single person cannot succeed in influencing all these people. Therefore, work of leadership has to be shared, but influencing has to happen inside the teams. The aspects of leadership that I recommend that MyCommuniCo should adopt include the following: The departments should still remain. Ground rules for consultation should be laid in order to prevent unhealthy competition, and to promote productive consultation. Departmental leaders should be trained on how to make the teams effective, as well as how to influence their team members and inspire them with organizational goals. An organizational culture that promotes organizational values, should be emphasized, initiated and maintained. The top leadership should provide vision and values in the organization to promote following of a common goal by the employees. In line with the propositions of the two models, MyCommuniCo stands a very good chance to improve, if these recommendations are followed. They have been tested and proven right, and with the situation at hand in this organization, I strongly recommend application of teamworking in the organization, as well as transformational leadership in the level of the groups.


Bass, B. 1998. Transformational leadership: Military, industry and the educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Bass, M.B. & Riggio, E.R. 2006. Transformational leadership (2nd ed). London, UK: Taylor and Francis.

Bass, M.B. & Ruth, B. 2008. The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research and managerial applications. New York, NY: Free Press.

Gronn, P. 2002. ‘Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis’. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol 13, no. 4 pp 423-451

Igen, R.D. & Kozlowski, W.J. (2006). ‘Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams’. Association for Psychological Science, 7 (3): 77-124

Judge, T. A. & Robbins, S. P. 2011.  Organizational behavior (14th Edition).  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Kocolowski, D.M. 2010. Shared leadership: Is it time for a change? Emerging Leadership Journeys, Vol 3, no. 1 pp 22-32.

Louise, S., Ray, B., Agnes, M., Mike, W. & Sally, T. 2006. Professional learning communities: A review of the literature. Journal of Educational Change, Vol 7, no. 6 pp 221-258.

Muenjohn, N. n.d. ‘The ethical dimension in transformational leadership.’ Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, Vol 3, no. 3 pp 21-35

Wallace, M. & Hall, V. 1994. Inside the SMT: Teamwork in secondary school management. London: Paul Chapman.

Wallace, M. 2001. ‘Sharing leadership of schools through teamwork’: Educational management and administration, Vol 29, no. 2: pp 153.

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