I’m trying to study for my Mathematics course and I need some help to understand this question.

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Objective

1. Identify the steps of hypothesis testing.

2. Explain the difference between the null and alternate hypothesis.

3. Demonstrate that semantic difference between
failing to reject and
accepting a null hypothesis.

4. Explain how the p-value and a test statistic are related to each other.

5. Explain how the p-value or test statistic is used to evaluate a hypothesis.

6. Explain when one uses a two- instead of a one-tailed hypothesis test.

Instructions

Scenario: Your friend told two other friends that you provide helpful explanations about statistical concepts. These three friends are confused about the steps involved in hypothesis testing.

Prompt: Your friends have five questions:

1 What are the steps involved in hypothesis testing?
2. What is the key difference between the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis?
3. Why do we say we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis instead of saying we reject or accept the null hypothesis?
4. How is a p-value related to a test statistic?
5. What is the key difference between a one- and two-tailed hypothesis test?

To keep things simple, focus on the one-sample mean t-test if you need to talk about a specific procedure, though you suspect that just dealing with the ideas more generally will be fine. Although your friends have read Rogerson Statistical Methods for Geography, Chapter 5, they are still confused. If you can’t find your copy of Rogerson, the Sakai site has a link to an electronic copy of the first edition.

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