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Briefly outline some reasons for the creation and adoption of the BWM convention, including economic, environmental and human health issues.

a). Briefly outline some reasons for the creation and adoption of the BWM convention, including economic, environmental and human health issues. [9 Marks] b). How is the discussion and drafting of this convention and others funded? (Who Pays?) [4 Marks] c). What will be the process for turning the BWM Convention into Law in Australia once it is finally ratified by 35% of the worlds shipping tonnage? [10 Marks] d). List at least three technical methods available for minimizing the risks of spreading undesirable/ invasive aquatic organisms from ships ballast water. [Any 3 = 9 Marks] e). List at least five (5) system components likely to be required to ensure compliance with BWM regulations. [Any 5 = 10 Marks] f). Is the US Coast Guard (The USA maritime administration) frustrating the IMOs process for implementation of the BWM convention in your opinion and if so How? [5 Marks] g). Comment on the likely effectiveness of the IMO G8 guidelines in terms of preventing the spread of invasive species. [10 Marks] h). What is the estimated cost to fit the worlds fleet with BWM equipment according to BIMCO? Where will this money come from? [6 Marks] i). Comment of the risk to a car carriers ships stability when undertaking ballast water exchange at sea. (Research Cougar Ace in 2006) [8 Marks] j). List three methods that the IMO proposes for Port State authorities to monitor ships compliance with the BWM Regulations? [Any 3 = 9 Marks]

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