CARCINOGENIC AFFECT OF GRILLED FOOD ON THE BODY
CARCINOGENIC AFFECT OF GRILLED FOOD ON THE BODY
Institution of Affiliation
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc536749327 h 3Introduction PAGEREF _Toc536749328 h 4How carcinogen is determined by researchers PAGEREF _Toc536749329 h 6i.Laboratory studies PAGEREF _Toc536749330 h 6ii.Studies in people PAGEREF _Toc536749331 h 8What happens when meat is grilled? PAGEREF _Toc536749332 h 9The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) PAGEREF _Toc536749333 h 12Mode of exposure to the PAHs PAGEREF _Toc536749334 h 13Health effects of PAHs in the human body PAGEREF _Toc536749335 h 13Short term health effects of the PAHs PAGEREF _Toc536749336 h 14Long term health effects of the PAHs PAGEREF _Toc536749337 h 15Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs) PAGEREF _Toc536749338 h 16Mode of exposure of the HCAs to humans PAGEREF _Toc536749339 h 17Carcinogenicity of the HCAs PAGEREF _Toc536749340 h 18Health effects of the HCAs on the human body PAGEREF _Toc536749341 h 192-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) PAGEREF _Toc536749342 h 19Carcinogenic affect to the cells in the human body PAGEREF _Toc536749343 h 21Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc536749344 h 23References PAGEREF _Toc536749345 h 24
CARCINOGENIC AFFECT OF GRILLED FOOD ON THE BODY
Food grilling is one of the common practices that is adopted by a large number of the America population. Barbeque remains to be the favorite meals especially when on holidays or when parties celebrate their good times in the open. Grilling of food has been said to have elevated the levels of carcinogenic chemicals in food that include the heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). HCAs and PAHs are produced when foods are cooked at high temperatures above 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The two compounds are said to be carcinogenic when they come into contact with the human cells as they increase the probability of mutations among the human cells. The intake of the HCAs and PAHs can be through ingestion of grilled food contain the carcinogenic content and as well as through inhalation especially for the person preparing the food. Regular cleaning of the grills as well as grilling food at low temperatures may help in reducing the level of HCAs and PAHs in the foods and therefore minimizes the chances of cancer attack.
IntroductionCarcinogen refers to any of the substances to which promotes carcinogenesis that is responsible for the formation of cancer (Grimmer, 2018)7. The ability of the carcinogen to cause cancer is due to its ability to damage the genome or the disruption of the cellular metabolic process. Several radioactive substances can be considered carcinogenic, but the carcinogenicity can be attributed to the radiation, for example, the alpha particles as well as the gamma rays that are emitted by the carcinogenic substances. The common examples of the non-radioactive carcinogenic substances that are taken into the body through inhalation include the tobacco smoke, asbestos, and some dioxins.
Cancer refers to any of the diseases to which the normal cells get damaged and therefore do not undergo programmed cell death as fast as they are expected through mitosis. The carcinogens are known to increase the risk of cancer, and this is achieved through the alteration of the metabolism or through damaging of the DNA directly in the cells, and this interferes with the biological processes and as well induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, that eventually leads to the formation of tumors. In the case of severe DNA damage, it leads to the programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway gets damaged, then the cell is unable to prevent itself from becoming a cancer cell.
Figure showing the cell cycle between a normal cell and a cancer cell
A large number of people worry that substances or sequential exposures into their environment may be liable for causing cancer. Cancer is caused by the changes in the cell’s DNA. The DNA is the genetic blueprint of the cell, whereas some of the changes in the cells can be inherited from the parents, most of them are induced through the ingestion or inhalation of chemicals into the body thereby affecting the cells negatively, resulting in mutation and other conditions such as uncontrolled activities such as cell growth. The induced factors are as well-known as the environmental factors, and they include a wide range of exposures. The exposures include; the lifestyle factors that include physical activity, tobacco uses as well as nutrition. Naturally occurring exposures include the ultraviolet light, infectious agent and random gas. Medical treatments are also another environmental cause for the cell changes with such treatments including chemotherapy as well as the drugs that suppress the immune system. Pollution, household as well as workplace exposures cannot be left behind among the environmental agents or factors that lead to alteration of the cell’s DNA. Some of these factors are behavioral and can be changed through the adoption of the required behaviors. Lifestyle factors such as nutrition is an individual factor, and this implies that it is controlled by the personal behaviors that may include dieting as well as the nature of cooking their food before consumption.
The substances and exposures that are known to cause cancer are the carcinogens, with some of them having no direct effect to the cell’s DNA but lead to cancer in other ways such as causing the cells to divide at a faster rate than for the normal cells and this increases the chances that the DNA alteration will occur. Carcinogens do not cause cancer in every case, all the time as the substances known to have carcinogen vary in the levels of their cancer-causing potential (Poirier, 2018)12. Some of the carcinogens may cause cancer after a prolonged period with high levels of exposure while others take a shorter time to develop. For any particular individual, the risk of cancer development depends on many factors that include how they are exposed to a carcinogen, their genetic makeup as well as the intensity of the exposure.
How carcinogen is determined by researchersTesting for carcinogenic properties on food substances has often proved to be difficult especially for cancer as it is unethical to test for substances by exposing the populations to it and seeing whether they contract cancer from the substance. Due to this, researchers and scientists have devised other ways to test for the carcinogen.
Most of the testing is done in the laboratory not only for the carcinogenic products but for a wide range of substances across the globe. Laboratories have therefore been an essential component in the testing process as scholars have been able to identify the causes, as well as the treatment of the various conditions that have for a long time, caused discomfort to the people. Scientists obtain much of their data regarding whether a substance is capable of causing cancer from the laboratory studies that are carried in the cell cultures and animals (Greenstein, 2016)6. As there are a large number of substances to be tested in the laboratory which are both natural and human-made, the scientists use the pre-existing knowledge about the chemical structures, the extent of human exposure, results from the other laboratory tests as well as other factors that are relevant in the selection for chemical testing. For example, the scientists can have the idea regarding whether a substance might cause a problem through a comparison to a similar chemical to which have been studied in the past.
Laboratory studies alone cannot predict that a substance can cause cancer in individuals all the time, virtually all the known human carcinogens to which have been previously tested to cause cancer as well cause cancer in the laboratory animals. In most of the cases, the carcinogens cause cancer in laboratory animals during testing, and consequently, they are found to cause cancer in humans (Grimmer, 2018)7. Most of the studies of potential carcinogens expose the laboratory animals to doses that are higher than those exposed to humans. The reason behind it is because the cancer risk can only be detected in a relatively small group of animals. It has not always been clear if the results from the laboratory animal studies will be the same as that of the human as they are normally exposed to the substances. For example, the effects that are seen in the laboratory studies with very high doses of the substances may not have the same effects when the doses are exposed at a lower concentration or the effect of a substance when it is inhaled may not necessarily be the same as when typically applied on the skin. The difference also exists in that the bodies of the laboratory animals as well that of humans may not always substances in the same way. For the safety reasons, it is presumed that the exposures to which are caused by cancer at the larger doses in animals may as well be responsible for causing cancer in people. It is not possible to know how the exposure dose might affect the risk, but it is reasonable for the public health purposes to assume that lowering the human dosage of exposure will be able to reduce the risk of attaining cancer.
Studies in peopleApart from the laboratory testing, human studies as well can be used in the testing of carcinogen in the bid to identify their presence, and this is done through the epidemiologic studies. The epidemiologic studies look at the human populations to determine the factors that might be responsible for and may be linked to the onset of cancer (Gillison et al. 2015)5. The epidemiologic studies as well also provide important information, although they have their limits as the humans do not live in a controlled environment making the epidemiologic studies to be hard to achieve. People get exposed to many substances at any of the given time, especially at their workplace. They also exposed through the food that they consume, and it is unlikely that they are aware of what they have consumed and as well their exposure may remain unnoted to them as they even don’t remember of all the exposures that they have passed through in their past activities. Cancer development is not a single day thing, and this implies that the onset of cancer takes decades between the exposure to carcinogen and the onset of cancer and therefore it can be very difficult to link any particular exposure to cancer.
Through a combination of data from both types of studies, that is the laboratory studies and human studies; the scientists try their best to make an educated assessment of a substance with the ability to trigger the onset of cancer in the body of the humans. When there is enough evidence which is conclusive, the substance can, therefore, be labeled as a carcinogen. In the instance that the evidence is not conclusive, there is a consideration for the substance to be named as a carcinogen, although at sometimes there is not enough evidence to be certain in either way.
Human mostly takes in carcinogen through foods that are contaminated with carcinogen. Grilled meat and maize are among the leading causes of carcinogen intake into the body (Bansal et al. 2015)1. Holidays and leisure times are always characterized by an increase in demand for grilled meat, and this means that a large number of people do engage in the consumption of this type of food. Grilled meat is delicious and can create a delicious summer meal. The main concern, however, arises in the method of preparation for the barbeque as it involves grilling the meat at high temperatures which can quickly turn the perfect meal into carcinogenic making it no longer safe for consumption.
What happens when meat is grilled?Grilling meat as said earlier involves exposing the meat to high temperatures making it carcinogenic. There are two types of chemical reactions that occur during the preparation of barbequed meat. The initial chemical reaction involves fat drippings from the meat, and this leads to the creation of smoke that contains the chemicals polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Kamankesh et al. 2015)9. When the smoke produced surrounds the barbeque during the process of cooking, it gets to transfer the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto the meat on the grill.
The second case, when the meat is grilled at high temperatures, above 300 degrees Fahrenheit and for a long period, some reactions occur in the food, and these reactions create heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The heterocyclic amines are mostly found in the meat that has been grilled or fried, and this is characterized by high-temperature cooking. Lower temperature cooking methods such as baking and boiling produce the least amount of heterocyclic amines. It is also significant for the individuals to remember that charcoal and gas grilling both expose the meat and other foods to high temperatures.
When any meat is cooked over the flames or at very high temperatures, the muscle proteins tend to react with the heat to form various compounds the HCAs (Sobral et al. 2018)15. The HCAs have been attributed to, cause the cellular DNA alterations that are associated with the development of certain types of cancer in the human body. According to studies, the consumption of these chemicals, that, is the HCAs and the PAHs that are found on grilled meat have been attributed to the increased risks of colon, breast, pancreatic, prostrate as well as gastric cancers, mostly if the meat gets to be thoroughly cooked through surface charring.
Figure 1: The formation of HCA compounds during grilling
The HCAs are formed when substances such as the amino acids, creatine, and sugars get to react at high temperatures, and this mostly occurs in meat cooked at high temperatures (Oz & Seyyar, 2016)11. The PAHs are found in the smoke of the open grills, and they are consequently dropped into the meat during the process of grilling. The PAHs can as well be formed during the other food preparation stages and processes, and also, they can as well be found in the cigarette smoke as well as the car exhaust fumes. The formation of the HCAs and the PAHs in the cooked meat tend to vary according to the type of meat that is being prepared, the duration and the period of cooking as well as the cooking method that is used. In an example, a barbeque that is well done and grilled will have higher concentrations of the HCAs. A cooking method that exposes the meat to smoke contribute to the meat being attacked by the PAHs, and this makes the meat contaminated.
Table1: Lifetime average weighted intake of the HCAs in the United States
HCA Type Average Intake by men (ng/kg/day) Average Intake by women (ng/kg/day)
IQ 0.23 0.18
There has been great evidence that has been associated with the high consumption of the charred meat on a regular basis with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer by 60 percent. The PAHs and the HCAs are capable of damaging the DNA only after they are metabolized by the specific enzymes that are found in the body through a process referred to as bio-activation. According to studies, the activity of the enzymes can vary from one person to another; the information may be relevant to the cancer risks associated with the exposure to the PAHs and HCAs compounds. Numerous epidemiologic studies have incorporated the use of detailed questionnaires to examine the participant’s meat consumption as well as their meat cooking methods to make an inference of the levels of the HCAs and the PAHs exposed to them during the consumption.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)The PAHs are developed in the case where substances get to be burned, for this case the grilling of meat to obtain a barbequed food. Grilled meat is sweet to consume and is more appealing to a large number of people due to the sweet aroma produced during the grilling process. The PAHs can also be found at the places where the coal-gasification sites had been previously located. It is attributed that breathing of the smoke or getting into contact with the contaminated soil from such sites exposes an individual to the PAHs. Some of the PAHs may be responsible for causing cancer and may affect the kidneys, eyes, as well as the liver and therefore the PAHs, are among the carcinogenic compounds in grilled meat that may have adverse effects to the human body.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are compounds induced to the food prepared through grilling. The PAHs are a group of chemicals occurring naturally in the coal, gasoline and crude oil. The compounds are as well present in products that are produced from the fossil fuels that include asphalt and creosote. In the instance where coal is converted to natural gas, the PAHs are released, and this explains why some of the coal-gasification sites tend to have elevated levels of the compound. The polycyclic aromatic carbons can as well be released into the air during the burning of fossil fuels, organic compounds, and garbage. The less efficient the burning process, the more PAHs tend to be produced. The PAHs are produced naturally through natural activities such as volcanoes as well as forest fires.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be found throughout the environment and this include in the air, water and the soil, they can persist in the environment for a longer period probably for months or years. There are hundreds of PAHs that do exist but the most common ones include: Acenaphthene Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Anthracene Fluoranthene, Benzo(a)anthracene Fluorene, Benzo(a)pyrene Indo(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene Naphthalene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene Phenanthrene and Chrysene Pyrene (Henríquez-Hernández et al. 2017)8.
Mode of exposure to the PAHs
The air can at sometimes be contaminated by the PAHs, but the levels can vary depending on the area and region where the person is based. In the urban areas, the levels of the PAHs can be elevated to at least ten times greater than those in the rural areas. A person may be exposed to the PAHs in the soil near the hazardous areas such as the coal mines or areas to where woods have been burned. In the United States, low levels of the PAHs have been found in the drinking water supplies meaning that a large number of the populations are at the verge of being exposed to the PAHs chemicals.
At home, the PAHs can be found in tobacco smoke, fireplaces as well as from the smoke from the burning woods and stoves as well as some foods. Barbequing, charring or the smoking of food over the fire increases the levels of the PAHs in the food being prepared and this include activity such as grilling food like meat (Ledesma, Rendueles & Díaz, 2016)10. Other types of food such as roasted coffee, refined vegetable oil, vegetables, grains, and roasted peanuts may contain low levels of the PAHs, and therefore any food that has been passed or cooked under excessive heat especially roasting have a certain percentage of PAH in them.
Health effects of PAHs in the human body
PAH is a harmful chemical compound, and this means that it has a negative effect on the health of the person when taken along with other foods. During the process of grilling meat, it is inevitable that the PAHs are absent in the meat and any means to clean the grills will only reduce the levels of the PAHs in the meat. At any given point as long as the meat has been prepared through grilling, the PAHs has to be present. The frequent consumption of such barbequed meat implies that a person consumes PAHs in low concentration and this, therefore, might not be noted, however, more consumption over a long period implies that the levels of the PAHs continue to increase in the individual’s body. When ingested into the body at low concentrations, the effects of the PAHs might not be felt, but the more accumulation increases the chances of causing a tremendous impact into the body tissues of the victim. Higher concentrations of the PAHs in the body may be lethal, and this means that the chances of attaining a deadly condition like cancer are very high.
The health effects that are attributed to PAHs exposure mostly depends on the amount of PAHs that have entered the body, the period of exposure to the PAHs as well as the body’s response to the PAHs after ingestion or exposure. It should be noticed that a person can intake PAHs through smoke or through the consumption of the foods that are contaminated with the PAHs and this most specifically may be from the grilling of meat. Depending on the above reasons, the health effects of the PAHs can either be long term or short term, and this means that the lower the exposure or accumulation of the PAH into the body implies a short term effect while the higher the level of exposure and accumulation imply a long term effect and a higher risk of fatality.
Short term health effects of the PAHs
It is not clear of the ability of the PAHs to induce the short-term health effects to the individuals. However, the occupational exposures to high levels of the PAHs and other mixtures can result in various symptoms that can be said to be the short-term effects of PAHs consumption or exposure. The symptoms include eye irritation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting as well as confusion. Despite the manifestation of these symptoms, it is not yet known which of the specific PAHs compounds and mixtures is responsible for the causation of the symptoms. The mixtures of the PAHs are known to cause effects on the skin of animals and humans, and this includes the skin irritation and inflammation. Some of the compounds of the PAHs such as the anthracene, naphthalene, and benzo(a)pyrene are known to be skin irritants. Benzo(a)pyrene and anthracene have been reported to be skin sensitizers, for example, they are used to cause an allergic skin response in both humans and animals (Rengarajan et al. 2015)13. The short-term effects of the PAHs to the children are the same as to those of adults. However, the children with lower body weights compared to adults require a lower exposure less than that of adults for the same health effects to be effected onto them and this, therefore, depends on the ability of the body to fight against the mutagens as well as the surface area of the individual.
Long term health effects of the PAHsThe accumulation of the PAHs for a longer period may result in adverse health effects into the human body. Various health effects can be attributed from the prolonged exposure to the PAHs, and these may include: cataracts, skin damage, and photosensitization also known as sensitization to sunlight. Another long-term effect includes the kidney and liver damage aplastic anemia, a condition that effect on the bone cells in the bone marrow that produces the red blood cells. The repeated contact of the PAHs with the skin may lead to the induction of redness as well as skin inflammation. Most of the animals that have been exposed to some levels of the PAHs over longer periods during the laboratory studies have developed lung cancer from the inhalation, skin cancer that has resulted from the skin contact as well as stomach cancer that result from the ingestion of foods contaminated with the PAHs. According to the long-term studies that were conducted among the workers exposed to a mixture of the PAHs and other related workplace chemicals, there have been positive results that indicate an increased risk of the different types of cancer that include the risk of bladder, lung, gastrointestinal as well as skin cancer (Rengarajan et al. 2015)13. The studies, however, have as well reported asthma like symptoms, chronic bronchitis, lung abnormalities as well as reduced immune function. However, despite the causation of the above conditions, it is not clear from the studies as to whether it is the exposure to the PAHs to which was the cause as there were other potential cancer-causing agents during the period of exposure.
Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs)The heat during summer is a compelling weather condition that catches the attention of many people in the fields and during these times, barbequing is one of the best methods of preparing food. During the summer, millions of people not only the Americans fire up outdoor grills, especially during holidays. According to research, a large number of individuals who happens to own grills, use their grills all year round preparing the barbeque and that only 44 percent of the owners use the grills 1-2 times a week during the peak seasons. During the preparation, that is the grilling of meat either beef, chicken, fish or pork, some chemicals are produced, and these include the heterocyclic amines (HCAs, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acrylamide as well as the advanced glycation end products to which are termed by researchers to being mutagenic. A mutagenic substance is that which is capable of causing a mutation or structural damage to the DNA of the cell. Besides, the chemicals produced can be associated with the development of cancer cells in the various organ tissues of the human body and therefore can be as well termed as being carcinogenic.
The heterocyclic amines are potent and mutagenic compounds that are developed through the use of cooking methods that use high temperatures such as barbequing or grilling over an open flame, and this is more common on foods such as meat, fish and poultry. The heterocyclic amines are created when the amino acids which are also the building blocks for the proteins, creatine that are the compounds found in meat, as well as the sugar molecules, get to react with each other at high temperatures. Due to their protein content, even the eggs when cooked at high temperatures may result in the production of the HCAs. Scholars and researchers have been able to isolate more than 17 compounds of different HCAs that are as a result of the grilling, pan frying, and boiling of meat, fish, and poultry. Among the 17 compounds, four of them have gained the attention of the researchers due to the carcinogenic characteristics. The HCAs chemical compounds include: 2-Amino-3-Methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (MeIQ), 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Stavros et al. 2015)16.
Mode of exposure of the HCAs to humansSince most of these compounds of the HCAs are carcinogenic, it is important for the individuals to be aware of the risk of exposure to the compounds. The exposure to the HCAs in general and the IQ, MelQ, PhIp and the MelQx in specific is achieved through the consumption of meat that has been prepared on high temperatures (Garko, 2016)4. However, according to the scientific research, it has been detected that the HCAs can as well be harbored in the processed food-flavorings and the cigarette smoke. Regarding the occupation, the food handlers and especially those preparing the meat are prone to a high risk of being exposed to the HCAs through inhalation of the smoke and aerosolized particles during the preparation of the meat or foods that are rich in proteins.
According to the statistics, it has been reported that the estimated dietary exposure to the total HCAs to a person ranges from less than 1-17 ng/kg of the total weight of the individual in a day. Regarding the total concentration of the HCAs in cooked meat, the range is from less than one to about 500 ng/kg, though the concentrations of the HCAs are typically less than 100ng/g. In addition, the pan residues are deemed to always have high concentrations of the HCAs compared to the cooked meat, and therefore, when the preparing gravy from the meat drippings and grease, it is always essential to be aware that the gravy will contain huge amounts or high concentrations of the HCAs due to the residues in the pan. The cooks can be predisposed to relatively high amounts of HCAs through the inhalation the smoke containing aerosolized particles that are generated in the process of preparing meat.
Carcinogenicity of the HCAsIn general, the HCAs are considered to be potent and mutagenic compounds when they are exposed to humans. There have been numerous researches, and experiments that have been conducted with laboratory animals such as rats and mice and the results of the research have indicated that HCAs are cancer-causing chemicals. In an example, in both mice and rats, the oral administration of the MiIQ resulted in the development of tumors along the forestomach of the males and the cecum, liver, and colon in the females. In the female and male rats, the oral administration of the MeiQ resulted in cancerous tumors developing in the colon, oral cavity as well as in the zymbal glands.
The MeIQx’s carcinogenicity was demonstrated through its oral administration and the consequent the development of the cancerous tumors in the multiple tissue sites such as the lung tumors in the females, liver tumors in the males as well as the lymphoma and leukemia in male mice. In the rats, the formation of the liver and the zymbal gland tumors in both males and females, clitoral land tumors in the females as well as the skin tumors in males are evidence of the carcinogenicity of the HCAs compound. Both of the two types of the HCAs, PHIP, and IQ caused tumors in multiple tissues sites during an experiment with rats, mice, and monkeys (Fahrer & Kaina, 2017)3. Adding to the experimental animal models, the HCAs have been shown as being mutagenic agents through the use of the Ames test. According to the results, about 80-85 percent of the HCAs compounds that were identified as being mutagenic by the Ames test was proved to be carcinogenic in the animal tests. Besides, the potency of the Ames tested agents that were determined as being mutagenic correlated with the carcinogenic potency of the agents.
Health effects of the HCAs on the human body2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)Among the environmental factors that are linked to carcinogenesis among the humans, eating habits that are mostly characterized by the diet is a major determinant especially the consumption of meat. When fish and other meat is being cooked, some mutagenic compounds get produced, and these are the HCAs; according to research, the HCAs have been shown to be carcinogenic through bioassays in rodents. Among the most abundant of the HCAs, compounds are the 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The PhIP has been shown to induce tumors of the colon, prostrate as well as the breast of the animal models (David et al. 2018)2. The results that the PhIP can induce cancer among the three tissues sites where the tumors occurred with the high incidence being in the western part of the globe. The presence of the PhIP in their diet that is rich in cooked meat make an inference that the compound is capable of posing a significant threat to the people’s health. In support of the carcinogenic evidence of the PhIP in the animals, the PhIP-DNA adducts have as well been detected in the human prostate, colon and breast tissues. Whereas a number of the epidemiologic studies have crucial reports that that indicate the associations between the intake of the red meat, PhIP intake and the consequent development of the breast, colon and the prostate cancer. Generally, it has been acknowledged that the carcinogenic potential of the HCAs compound, PhIP is initiated with the development of the PhIP-DNA adducts that has the eventual results of mutation (David et al. 2018)2. The mechanism of PhIP to causing mutation involves the primary CYP1A2-mediated oxidation to the N-hydroxy derivative that is then followed by esterification that results in an unstable product that is responsible for the generation of nitrenium ions which attacks and