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es of lipids found in foods? Which of the above lipids is the major lipid in foods? What are the chemical elements (atoms) that make up triglycerides?…

  1. What are the 3 major categories of lipids found in foods?
  2. Which of the above lipids is the major lipid in foods?
  3. What are the chemical elements (atoms) that make up triglycerides?
  4. What are the subunits or compounds that link together to form the triglycerides?
  5. What type of chemical reaction is needed to make a triglyceride from its component parts?
  6. How do fatty acids differ from one another? 
  7. How are fatty acids similar to one another?
  8. What do we mean when we say that a fatty acid is saturated? monounsaturated? polyunsaturated?
  9. Compared to a saturated fatty acid, for every double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid, _____ hydrogens are missing.
  10. What does the term “omega” refer to in a fatty acid?
  11. How do you know if a fatty acid is an “omega-3” or an “omega-6”?
  12. If we say that a fatty acid is a 22:6 fatty acid, what does this mean?
  13. Are omega-3 fatty acids saturated or unsaturated? Where do we find them in foods? What is their influence on health?
  14. What is meant by “essential” fatty acid? Name the two essential fatty acids. For each of the two fatty acids, indicate how many total carbons are in the chain, how many double bonds are present and whether they are omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids.
  15. Describe the structure of a phospholipid. How does it differ from a triglyceride? Identify the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions of the phospholipid.
  16. What is the major role of phospholipids? Give two examples of specific instances or substances where phospholipids serve this role. How is a phospholipid configured within the cell membrane? 
  17. Give an example of a sterol. How does the structure of a sterol differ from other lipids (in general)?
  18. Does your body need cholesterol in order to thrive? If so, do you need to get it from food? If not, why not?
  19. What are some compounds made from cholesterol in the body?

Digestion and Absorption

  1. Describe the digestion and absorption of triglycerides (fats) in as much detail as possible. Be able to identify any chemical substances secreted from any organs to facilitate triglyceride digestion. Discuss any intermediate compounds formed during digestion (i.e. micelle, chylomicron) and identify the constituents of these compounds. Be sure to be clear about where each step in digestion and absorption is taking place. (see online lecture and figure 5.9 for a summary)

Transport of Lipids in the Blood

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  1. What is the name of the compound that transports lipids in the blood? Why is a special compound needed to transport lipids in the blood? What are the four major “ingredients” or subunits that make up this lipid transport vehicle?  Where in the compound is each ingredient located (i.e. what makes up the “shell”? What specifically is the role of the phospholipid subunit? 
  2. What influence do LDL and HDL have on the risk of cardiovascular disease? Why? What foods or lifestyle factors raise or lower the blood levels of these two lipoproteins?
  3. What are the other dietary risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease?
  4. What are the non-dietary risk factors for heart disease? 
  5. What are the steps in plaque formation in an artery? What cells and compounds play a role in this process. What can precipitate a heart attack or stroke? (figure 5.16).
  6. What is an acceptable blood cholesterol level? What is considered a borderline blood cholesterol level? What level of blood cholesterol is considered high?
  7. Should a vegan be worried about developing a cholesterol deficiency? Why or why not?
  8. Mr. X has coronary heart disease (cardiovascular disease affecting the heart vessels). What sort of lipid profile would you expect to see in his medical chart? For example, would his LDL be elevated or depressed? What about his HDL? Total Cholesterol? HDL to total cholesterol ratio?

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