Motivation And Leadership
Motivation And Leadership
TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946943” The importance of motivation PAGEREF _Toc375946943 h 1
HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946944” These steps ought to be performed by a manager. PAGEREF _Toc375946944 h 3
HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946945” Types of the motivation theories PAGEREF _Toc375946945 h 6
HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946946” Organizational Culture PAGEREF _Toc375946946 h 9
HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946947” Importance of organization culture PAGEREF _Toc375946947 h 9
HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946948” Factors that affect the organization culture PAGEREF _Toc375946948 h 10
HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946949” Types of organizational culture PAGEREF _Toc375946949 h 10
HYPERLINK l “_Toc375946950” The interview with Mr. Timothy Owalo PAGEREF _Toc375946950 h 13
Almarai is a Saudi company that was established in 1977 by Irish brothers namely Paddy and Mcguckian in partnership with the prince Sultan bin Mohammed bin Saud Al Kabeer. The company’s headquarter is in Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Almarai underwent major restructuring in the 1990’s that saw it change from a decentralized corporate structure to a more centralized one. This period saw the replacement of five processing plants with a single centralized plant. Small dairy farms were scattered all over the country were replaced with four large centralized farms. Some of the activities that the company is involved in include bakery, poultry farming, dairy farming and production of infant foods. The company was the first dairy company to receive the ISO 22000 certification in all its operating sectors. Abdulrahman Al Owais is the company’s human resource manager. Before rising to his current position, Abdulrahman previously worked as the regional personnel manager at the same company. He received his education from the Jamiat Al-lmam Mohammed Saudi Al-Islamiah Islamic University.
The importance of motivationMotivation is very crucial for an organization. It provides several benefits to the organization, such as:
Places human resources into action
Each concern requires financial, physical and human resources to achieve the goals. Through motivation, human resources objectives and goals are achieved by fully using it. Building willingness of employees to work can do this (Truman, 2012).
Boosts the efficiency level of employees
An employee does not entirely rely on his/her abilities and qualifications. For attaining the best of his/her performance at work, the gap between willingness and ability has to be filled. This will help in improving the subordinates’ level of performance. As a result, various aspects are generated.
Increase in productivity and efficiency
Reducing the operations cost and
Improving overall competence.
Contributes to the attainment of organizational goals
The objectives of an organization can be attained only if the following takes place
There is effective utilization of resources
There is a supportive work environment
Employees are goal-directed as well as conduct their duties in a purposive way
Goals can be attained if co-operation and coordination takes place at the same time, which can be well done through motivation.
Enhances friendly relationship
Motivating employees is a significant factor that increases their satisfaction. This can be carried out by keeping in mind and drawing up an incentive program for the welfare of employees. This could be conducted in various ways (Truman, 2012).
Financial and non-financial appreciations,
Promotion opportunities for employees,
Disincentives for inefficient employees.
These steps ought to be performed by a manager.This will assist in the following ways
Effective co-operation which generates stability.
Industrial unrest and dispute with employees will decline.
The employees will be flexible to changes and will no longer be resistant to change.
This will assist in providing a sound and smooth concern in which employees’ interests will correspond with those of the organization.
It will result in maximization of profits through increased productivity.
5. Leads to the solidity of the work force
Stability of the workforce is very significant from the perspective of goodwill and reputation of a concern. The efficiency and skills of workers will always be of benefit to them as well as their employers. This will result in a good public reputation in the market that will attract qualified and competent people into a concern (Truman, 2012)
It can be said that motivation is a feeling that can only be understood by a manager as he has a close contact with the employees. Their needs can be well understood by a manager and he is able to frame motivation plans accordingly (Truman, 2012). Based on this fact, Motivation is vital both to an individual as well as the business. (Truman, 2012)
Motivation is essential to an individual because;
It helps him to achieve his personal targets.
The more an individual is motivated, the more he has job satisfaction.
Motivation will assist in self-development of the individual employee.
An individual would always benefit by co-coordinating with a dynamic team.
Similarly, motivation is imperative to a business because;
The more motivated workers are the more powerful the team is.
The more the teamwork and the individual employee’s contribution, the more the business is profitable and successful.
During the period of changes there will be adequate creativity and adaptability.
Motivation also leads to a challenging and optimistic attitude at the work place.
Qualities of a Perfect Motivation System
Motivation refers to a state of mind. High motivation results in increased morale and production. A motivated worker gives his best to the enterprise. A sound system of motivation in an organization ought to have the following aspects;
Better performance should be logically rewarded and be duly acknowledged.
If one performance is not consistent with the level required, the system should make terms of penalties.
Employees must be dealt with in a just and fair manner. The obstacles and grievances faced by them have to be dealt fairly and instantly.
Carrot and stick strategy should be reinforced to motivate both those who are efficient and inefficient. Employees should handle negative consequences (like fear of punishment) as the stick, an outside pull and move far away from it. Also, the positive consequences (like reward) should be taken as carrot, an inside pull and move closer towards it.
An effective performance appraisal system.
Ensure flexibility in the working arrangements.
A good motivation system must be concurrent to the organizational goals. The individual or employee goals should be harmonized with those of the organization.
The motivational system should be regulated to the situation as well as the organization.
A sound motivation system needs modifying the nature of the jobs of individuals. Their jobs should be restructured or redesigned according to the situation’s requirement. Any of the options to job specialization – job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment would be used.
The approach of the management should be participative. The subordinates and workers should be occupied in the decision – making process.
The system should include monetary as well as the non- monetary rewards. Monetary rewards should be related to performance and performance should be founded on actions of employees towards the targets and not on employees’ fame.
“Motivate yourself so as to motivate your staff” should be the approach taken by managers.
Managers have to understand and identify specific motivators for every employee.
The sound system should promote supportive supervision where supervisors share their experiences and views with their subordinates, be able to listen to the views of subordinates, and help the subordinates in carrying out the designated job.
Types of the motivation theoriesAn example of “Need-based theory” would be a Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory that assumes people are motivated according their personal needs. Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance (Moorhead & Griffin, 2012).
These needs are divided into two sub-categories
Low-order needs – physiological and safety needs, they are satisfied externally (payment, unions)
High-order needs – esteem, social and self-actualization needs, they are satisfied internally.
Managers find motivating employees somewhat challenging. Employees are different from each other the reason why motivating them is a bit difficult. Each individual has her or his own likes and dislikes, desires or interests and passion. The role of a thriving manager is to understand his/her employees by learning how to recognize what motivates each individual and how to leverage these motives to concurrently fulfill the organizational goals and objectives, as well as the objectives of each employee. There are five main employee motivation factors, which help managers build a successful organization namely appreciation, satisfaction, recognition, compensation and inspiration (Maroney, 2004).
Employee motivation through building satisfaction
Satisfaction is one of the important key factors for a successful organization. According to Maroney (2004), when a manager creates a work environment which focuses, attracts and keeps talented employees, employees are satisfied and perform better. Happy employees result in happy customers. In other words, a manager should focus on maintaining satisfied employees, employee motivation and as a result these satisfied, motivated employees will take good care of customers.
Employee motivation by genuine appreciation.
Appreciation is another important key motivation factor. At times, managers while not knowing sabotage employee motivation through failing to appreciate the positive behaviors and success of their employees. As a consequence, employees are not aware of whether or not they are performing a good job. Managers can improve this situation by rewarding their employees. A reward as simple as a pat in the back or a note could do the job, additionally, being specific about a job done by an employee results in much better performance. By being specific, the employee realizes that their actions are being watched and what they do affects the organization even if it is small (Maroney, 2004).
Employee motivation by recognising.
Recognition is the acknowledgment of an event, object, person, phenomenon, or right, before its acceptance, inclusion, or recording (Business dictionary, 2013). Recognition is important in organizations and it plays an important role. Many employees want recognition more than money that is why sometimes recognition is the secret weapon of managers to motivate the employees. Some employees want to be recognized by people within the organization once a job was well done by them. A manager should look for a manner to increase employee motivation through recognizing excellence within the workplace. This is possible by ringing a bell on each time an individual or the team meets the production target, or by putting up posters that have photographs of members of the team who have had the highest number of days without accidents and giving out prizes for attendance records. Through this, managers will see their employees giving their best. It’s cheap and highly effective. (Maroney, 2004)
Employee motivation by inspiring
Inspiration develops from leadership. This type of employee motivation involves the mission, purpose and goals of the company. People desire to be associated with an organization that is going forward, stands for something and which offers a meaningful service in the marketplace. When employees feel their organization stands out from others, they are more motivated to do better. One important thing here is managers make the goals for the companies clear (Maroney, 2004).
Employee motivation by compensating
The last key motivating factor is compensation. Majority of the employees are motivated by being given money. There are many forms of compensation such as performance bonuses, raises, profit sharing, commissions, or any variety of “extra benefits” such as, vacations, automobiles, or any other tangible items that can be bought and be used as rewards. By rewarding employees with different items other than money, managers will see some of their employees excited to show their best performance in order to receive these returns. (Maroney, 2004)
Organizational CultureDefinition of organizational culture
We all have a certain personality, which helps us stand apart from everyone else. No two people behave alike. In the same way, organizations have certain values, policies, rules and guidelines, which help them, create an image of their own and be unique from other organizations (Carriker, 2008). Organization culture is the values and behaviours which contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization (Business Dictionary, 2013). It refers to the beliefs and principles of an organization. The culture in organizations influences employees who are part of the organizations, and makes people in organizations behave in certain ways (Carriker, 2008). Every organization has a unique culture making it different from the others. Every employee must understand the culture of their organization for them to adjust well (Carriker, 2008). No two organizations can have the same culture. The culture of working at a restaurant is different from the culture of working at an education industry.
Importance of organization cultureA place where people work together to make profits, share their dream of making it big, is called an organization. The unique style of working of each organization makes up its culture. It has power over how people should conduct themselves with each other and with people outside the organization. The organization culture is important and vital for the well-being of an organization in that; it constitutes the whole spirit and concept of the organization. It guides workers through their interaction with each other, their tasks and what they have to do. It ensures no one takes work as a burden and they spontaneously have it done at the end of the day. It makes sure workers are constantly motivated and competitive (a little competition is healthy for the organization) and that they identify themselves to the organization, feel like they belong to it and no one is left out or neglected. The very cosmopolitan environment inside an organization gives employees the opportunity to learn more about cultures and a sense of unity. Organizational culture sets a frame and goal for everyone to follow and makes it easier to succeed (Management Study Guide, 2008).
Factors that affect the organization cultureWith what has been stated above, it is necessary to add the factors that affect the organization culture and the stability it promotes to workers themselves. Their mentalities, points of view and attitudes affect the organization culture. It is going to vary according to their age and environment. Another clear point that affects the organizational culture is the gender of the employee. In an organization with a minority of women, men would tend to be more aggressive and dominant. The nature of the business, whether it depends on external factors (stock broking industries, banking industries) can have an influence over the organization culture. The goals and objectives set as well as the clients and external parties play a role as they both form the culture by matching timings and expectations from employees. Finally, the way management deals with employees has a big impact on the organization culture. In decentralized organizations where employees are given more freedom to make decisions, they feel concerned about the work and will pursue their involvement with the organization (Factors affecting organization culture, 2012).
Types of organizational cultureThere are many types of organization cultures that many organizations adapt. Below are examples of some cultures that are used: (Management study guide, 2008)
Normative Culture – In this culture, the procedures and norms of the entity are predefined and their rules and regulations are established as indicated by the existing guidelines. Employees behave in a logical way and strictly follow the policies of the entity. No employee challenges the rules and follows the already set policies.
Pragmatic Culture – This culture places more emphasis on the clients as well as the external parties. In pragmatic culture, the main motive by the employees is to ensure customer satisfaction. Such organizations take their clients as their gods and are not required to follow any laid rules. Every employee tries hard to satisfy the clients in order to maximize business on their side.
Academy Culture – In this, organizations hire skilled individuals. The responsibilities and roles are delegated in accordance to the background, work experience and educational qualification of employees. Entities following this culture are very persistent on training the existing workers. They ensure that a variety of training programs are being held at the workplace to polish the employees’ skills. The management makes earnest efforts to improve the knowledge of employees so as to boost their professional competence. Employees in the academy culture remain in the organization for a long duration and grow while in it: universities, educational institutions, hospitals follow such a culture.
Baseball team Culture – This culture regards employees as the most precious possession within the organization. They are the true organization’s assets, who contributes the major role in the organizations successful functioning. In this culture, individuals too have a leading edge and do not worry much about their entities. Advertising agencies, financial institutions and event management companies practice such a culture.
Club Culture – Organizations practicing a club culture are particular about the employees they recruit. They are hired in accordance with their interests, specialization and educational qualification. Every employee does that which he is best at. those with high potential employees are promoted properly and appraisals are regular features of this culture.
Fortress Culture – There are those organizations where workers are not very clear about their longevity and career. Such organizations practice fortress culture. Workers are terminated when the organization is poorly performing. Individuals are prone to suffer when the organization goes at a loss. Example in this culture is the Stock broking industries.
Tough Guy Culture – In this culture, feedbacks are important. The employees’ performance is assessed after a duration of time and their work is carefully monitored. Team managers are selected to discuss some matters with the team members and assist them whenever required. Workers are under constant supervision in this culture.
Bet your company Culture – Entities that follow this culture take decisions that involve a big amount of risk and consequences are unforeseen. Policies and principles of such an organization are set to address sensitive problems and it takes some time to find the results.
Process Culture – Employees in this culture adhere to the procedures and processes of the organization. Performance reviews and feedbacks are not of much importance in such organizations. Workers stand by the rules and work in accordance to the ideologies of these workplaces. Government organizations practice such a culture.
The interview with Mr. Timothy OwaloWhat is meant by motivation in your own understanding?
[Timothy] Motivation is referred to as a state of mind and inspiration, which makes a person use his/her maximum ability to attain the maximum success.
Do you consider motivation is to be essential?
[Timothy] I think Motivation is basic to the success of an individual and the team.
Why is it crucial to motivate workers in the workplace?
[Timothy] In the modern workplace, there is unrelenting pressure to increase productivity as well as maintain high spirit. In order to achieve the company’s priorities, their employees need to be highly motivated.
Which ways do you adopt to motivate your employees?
[Timothy] Employees are motivated differently, there are those motivated by financial rewards, others are motivated by providing training and development; others are recognized and awarded while others are motivated by increasing their responsibilities. The best leader is one who is close to the team and employs diverse ways to motivate the employees and the entire team.
Are you aware of any other ways of motivating your employees that are beyond their line of duty?
[Timothy] Yes there are, I do it all the time. Some of the best recognized employees are usually taken for vacations during the holidays.
How does motivation influence the performance of the employees?
[Timothy] Motivation has a major impact on the employee’s performance. The highly motivated employees always achieve a lot and are always successful.
How do your employees feel about the company’s values and safety? Does it have an effect on their performance?
[Timothy] Safety of the employees is a priority for all workplaces. I thereby do not view it related to performance, as it is an employee’s basic right. Values however are extremely significant in producing better performance.
Do you consider maintaining a good relationship with the manager to motivate employees?
[Timothy] very true, being in good terms with the manager motivates the employees.
Do you suppose most employees are more motivated by giving financial incentives, the feeling of self-achievement, or by their ability to make a genuine contribution to the organization?
[Owalo] It depends, different employees have different personalities. From my experience, motivating employees through financial incentives does not last longer. Motivating them through other ways is considered the best.
To what extent is your company diverse?
[Timothy] Very diverse and strongly fosters diversity.
What form of organizational culture is applied at Almarai?
[Timothy] In Almarai, there is a culture of transparent, open and collaborative environment, development and career growth, full and maximum professionalism and respect, and contribution to the local society.
Are you currently facing any hardships dealing with other cultures from different organizations? If yes, how do you adapt to them?
[Timothy] No, on the contrary, I think our team is made very strong and capable by our diverse nature.
Kindly tell us of the internal features of the Almarai’s organization culture?
[Timothy] It has been and continues to be an environment that is concerned about an individual as they attempt to achieve the company’s goals. It is transparent, open and collaborative environment, full of respect and professionalism, promotes development and career growth and contributes to the local society.
How are the different genders within the company interacting?
[Timothy] Almarai offers an environment that promotes teams based on their qualifications. The teams consist of males and females. This provides equal and fair opportunities to a transparent, open and collaborative environment, with maximum respect and professionalism, allows development and career growth and contributes greatly to the local society.
According to you, is it possible for a company to have good organization culture that facilitates workers in the organization to offer better services?
[Timothy] Yes, a firm needs to focus on persons and care for them like a family.
Thank you the cooperation.
[Owalo] You are welcome. I am glad to discuss more if needed.
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