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what is the difference between FAE vs FAS (Your response must include information from this week’s lecture)?

what is the difference between FAE vs FAS (Your response must include information from this week’s lecture)?

Lecture: I. Metacognition & More about Ethnocentrism

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Studying human development includes understanding our thinking process. The two concepts we will address here will shed light on this topic: metacognition & ethnocentrism. These concepts shed light on HOW our opinions, perceptions, judgments, assessments, and interpretations are shaped.

Metacognition is a critical thinking concept that is defined as the process of evaluating one’s thinking. Often referred to as “thinking about thinking”, metacognition involves self-reflection because critical thinkers asks themselves questions about their own learning. Examples of such questions include the following:

What is confusing to me?

What questions do I need to create to help me clarify my confusion?

How has my thinking expanded as a result of understanding XYZ?

In what way might my understanding be biased/shaped by my cultural/societal beliefs?

What questions can I ask to expand my understanding?

How might my new understanding impact me, my decisions, my perceptions about others, etc.

Engaging in metacognition is not easy because it requires us to chip away at what we do not know. How do we deepen our understanding about something when we do not know what we do not know? [Read that again, slowly.] We must read more about that topic AND we probably need to re-read it. It also helps to get support from your instructor! Please contact me when you need this support.  

Ethnocentrism is the evaluation/judgment of other cultures and subcultures (i.e. their beliefs, practices, customs) based on one’s own cultural standards and customs. Here is an example: An American raised in Ohio thinks Alaskan Natives are “silly” because of their strong belief that the soul or spirit of dead ancestors create a child’s personality. This thought is ethnocentric because the individual has (consciously or unconsciously) used their own understanding of how a child’s personality is formed as the standard for knowledge. Because the individual fails to engage in metacognition they fail to see that their thought about Alaskan natives is (1) biased against others who have a different standard for knowledge; and (2) narrow and overly simplistic.

II. Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) vs Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

The difference between Fetal Alcohol Exposure (FAE) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is that children with FAE often look like the average child and have normal IQ’s but have very poor behavior, subtle and multiple learning disabilities, weaknesses in attention, memory, judgment, and difficulties primarily in verbal reasoning/auditory processing. These kids often look “normal” on superficial exam and tend to go unnoticed by the schools. FAS produces obvious symptons.

Research on how much alcohol drinking while pregnant and the time period of intake is complex and contains varying results. The ultimate caution warms that any amount of alcohol intake while pregnant may produce an adverse effect. 

IV. The Human Genome Project & HeLa Cells: 

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was the international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings. All our genes together are known as our “genome.” 

The HGP has revealed that there are probably about 20,500 human genes. The completed human sequence can now identify their locations. This ultimate product of the HGP has given the world a resource of detailed information about the structure, organization and function of the complete set of human genes. This information can be thought of as the basic set of inheritable “instructions” for the development and function of a human being.

HeLa cells (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. are a cell (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. type in an immortal cell line (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. used in scientific research. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. The line was derived from cervical cancer (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. cells taken (without consent) on February 8, 1951 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.from Henrietta Lacks (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., a patient who died of her cancer on October 4, 1951. The cell line was found to be remarkably durable and prolific which warrants its extensive use in scientific research. They were the first human cells grown in a lab that were “immortal,” meaning that they do not die after a few cell divisions, and they could be used for conducting many experiments. This represented an enormous boon to medical and biological research, such as the (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.development of the polio vaccine.  

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