Oral mucositis (OM) is a relatively common side effect among patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, with a prevalence ranging from 20% to 49% in new cancer patients (Sonis 2009).
NURS 3046 Nursing Project Assignment 1 (2,000 words 45%)
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Oral mucositis (OM) is a relatively common side effect among patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, with a prevalence ranging from 20% to 49% in new cancer patients (Sonis 2009). The actual risk of developing OM depends on patient factors such as advanced age (Cakmak & Nural 2019); and treatment factors such as the carcinoma site and the dose of therapy (Brown et al. 2009; Sonis 2009; Vera-Llonch et al. 2006). The pathophysiology of OM involves a complex interaction of biological processes, triggered by the breakdown of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands following radiation and/or chemotherapy (Sonis 2009). The severity of OM ranges from erythema to ulceration (Sonis et al. 1999), often companied by physical symptoms including dry mouth, reduced appetite and altered taste (Cakmak & Nural 2019). Patients living with severe episodes of OM have also reported higher level of anxiety, depression and fatigue (Brown et al. 2009), and are known to experience a longer hospital stay (Elting et al. 2003).
As an ancient remedy, honey was used as a method of healing (Mandal & Mandal 2011). In modern medicine, treatment of partial thickness burns and post-operative wounds with honey is documented (Jull et al. 2015). The healing properties of honey can be attributed to its antimicrobial potential, which impedes the growth of bacterial; and its high concentration of water, which maintains the moist level in the wound bed (Mandal & Mandal 2011). These properties together help create an optimal environment for cell and tissue growth. Previous studies have examined the effects of honey in promoting healing of OM among cancer patients, yet the results have been inconsistent.
Is honey effective in promoting healing of oral mucositis among patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy?
The research question is highly significant because providing care based on best available evidence is an integral part of nursing practice (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2016). Results of this review might inform and complement current nursing practice in the management of oral mucositis among cancer patients. If shown to be effective, honey has the potential to become a readily available remedy in treating OM, subsequently improving patient’s nutrition status and quality of life.
SummarY ANALYSIS of Four (4) Primary Research Articles (1000 words)
Select four (4) relevant primary research articles from the chosen Scenario Package. Write a 250-word summary of each primary research article using the 3-step format outlined in Topic 2.
Results and Discussion (900 words)
1) Compare and contrast the findings of the four (4) primary research articles to generate synthesised key messages. 2) Discuss strengths and/or limitations of the synthesised findings. 3) Reference the four (4) primary studies and additional references as relevant.
Conclusion (100 words)
Summarise the major points in a non-repetitive manner.
Brown, CG, McGuire, DB, Peterson, DE, Beck, SL, Dudley, WN & Mooney, KH 2009, ‘The experience of a sore mouth and associated symptoms in patients with cancer receiving outpatient chemotherapy’. Cancer Nursing, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 259–270.
Cakmak, S & Nural, N 2019, ‘Incidence of and risk factors for development of oral mucositis in outpatients undergoing cancer chemotherapy’. International Journal of Nursing Practice, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. e12710.
Elting, LS, Cooksley, C, Chambers, M, Cantor, SB, Manzullo, E & Rubenstein, EB 2003, ‘The burdens of cancer therapy. Clinical and economic outcomes of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Cancer, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 1531–1539.
Jull, AB, Cullum, N, Dumville, JC, Westby, MJ, Deshpande, S & Walker, N 2015, ’Honey as a topical treatment for wounds’. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3), Cd005083. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005083.pub4.
Mandal, MD & Mandal, S 2011, ‘Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 154–160.
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2016, Registered nurses standards for practice. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, Melbourne.
Sonis, ST 2009, ‘Mucositis: The impact, biology and therapeutic opportunities of oral mucositis’. Oral Oncology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1015–1020.
Sonis, ST, Eilers, JP, Epstein, JB., LeVeque, FG, Liggett, WH Jr., Mulagha, MT, . . . Wittes, JP 1999, ‘Validation of a new scoring system for the assessment of clinical trial research of oral mucositis induced by radiation or chemotherapy. Mucositis Study Group’. Cancer, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 2103–2113.
Vera-Llonch, M, Oster, G, Hagiwara, M & Sonis, S 2006, ‘Oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiation treatment for head and neck carcinoma’. Cancer, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 329–336.