# Bradley calls out in class. Sometimes his teachers give him attention by making a comment, and sometimes they ignore him (VR schedules),

Question

Bradley calls out in class. Sometimes his teachers give him attention by making a comment, and sometimes they ignore him (VR schedules), with his Math teacher ignoring him more often (VR4) than his Social Sciences teacher (VR2). One day his Math teacher has had enough, and the first time he calls out, she send him to the principal. The Math teacher is negatively reinforced for sending him to the principal because that removes the calling out that she finds aversive, so she sends him to the principal when he calls out a few more times (punishment) and he stops calling out in her class. Meanwhile, the Social Sciences teacher continues to give him attention for approximately every 4th call out, however, Bradly’s rate of calling out increases in the Social Sciences class. This multiple schedule of reinforcement (mult VR4/VR2) with discriminative stimuli (Math class, Social Sciences class) has now changed to a mult VR4/PUN, and the call out events have increased in Math. What is this called?

A: progressive-ratio reinforcement

B: behavioral decay

C: behavioral contrast

D: ratio strain

Question

Which theory of emotion is present?

(Chapter 10-11)

1. Today Neil received a treatment for his migraine headaches which involved an injection of Botox into the muscles in his forehead and around his brows. He now cannot contract those muscles and furrow his brows. This evening he notices that when his teenager was clearly trying to antagonize him, he just didn’t feel as irritated as he usually does.

2. A researcher asked participants to attend to images flashed on a screen. Half of the participants were instructed to pull a joystick toward them when the image was related to forests and to push it away from them when the image was related to fields. The other half of the participants were asked to respond in the opposite way to fields and forests. The researcher then assessed participants’ emotional responses to the images and found that participants reported more positive emotional response to the images they had responded to by pulling the joystick toward them compared to the images to which they responded by pushing the joystick away from them.

3. Jack had an espresso just before working out at the gym. As he’s pounding away on the treadmill, his heart is racing a little faster than it usually does. He stops momentarily to wipe the sweat from his face and notices the person on the treadmill next to him. He is amazed at how strongly attracted he is to this person and wonders why he hadn’t noticed them before.

4. Eric is a five year old whose parents are dependable, warm and use a lot of positive reinforcement. On the other hand, Eric’s cousin Ethan’s parents are unpredictable and tend to use harsh punishment with him and his older brother. One day the cousins were together in the care of an older relative, and when he suddenly received good news through a text, he excitedly shouted. Eric’s reaction to his shouting was excitement, while Ethan experienced a surge of fear.

5. Jane and Jack were driving along a rural road and nearly hit a deer. Afterwards, Jane commented that she thinks she didn’t really feel fearful until after her heart started racing. Jack says that as far as he was aware, his feeling of fear happened at the very same time his heart started racing. Jane’s observations are most consistent with the ________ theory of emotion, while Jack’s reflect the __________ theory.