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This is the information I learned in class. Dairy foods • Cheese,…

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This is the information I learned in class. Dairy foods
• Cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese
(for example, soy beverages)
Ice cream, pudding, and frozen yogurt may be grouped with dairy foods but often have sugar and fat.
• Calcium, phosphorus, potassium
• Protein
• Riboflavin, vitamins A and D
Protein foods
• Lean meats (healthier animal proteins): chicken, turkey, fish, eggs, some shellfish
• Red meat (higher in saturated fat): beef, pork, lamb
• Plant proteins: beans, nuts, tofu, and seeds
Micronutrients: Iron and zinc
Some animal proteins contain higher levels of saturated fat and cholesterol (elitch ac head and nork\
• Fresh, dried, frozen, sauced, canned, 100% fruit juice
• More often choose
• Particularly fruits with skin
• Low in fat and energy
• Potassium, vitamin C, and folate
• Phytochemicals
• Fresh, cooked, canned, frozen, dried/dehydrated, 100% vegetable juice
• Eat a variety of colors: dark green, orange, and starchy
• Dried beans and peas

• Olive oil, nuts, seeds, avocados
• Other foods (nuts, olives, avocados, certain fish may be groups with oils)
• Beef fat, butter, lard, shortening, cream, cream cheese, and sour cream
• Coconut and palm oils

Combination foods
• More than one food group
• Pizza, sandwiches, and casseroles
Amounts of individual ingredients
• Estimate percentages of each food group

Cakes, cookies, pastries, and
Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, sports drinks, and fruit drinks
Ice cream

Dietary Guidelines
• Fruits, especially whole fruit
• Grains, at least half of which are whole grains
• Vegetable oils, like olive oil Limits:
Added sugars

Dietary Guideline
Bom of truly: Wendy Schitt
If you usually eat:
Consider replacing with:
White bread and rolls
Whole-wheat bread and rolls
Sugary ready-to-eat cereals
High-fiber cereal sweetened with fruit
Cheeseburger, French fries, and a regular soft drink
Roasted chicken or turkey sandwich, baked beans, and fat-free milk or soy milk
Potato salad or cole slaw
Leafy greens salad
Sweet rolls, doughnuts, and salty snacks
Small bran muffin, bagel topped with peanut butter and raisins, or unsalted sweet potato chips
Regular soft drinks, whole milk
Water, fat-free or low-fat milk, or 100% fruit juice
Fatty meats such as bacon, sausage, and hot dogs
Chicken, turkey, or fish; lean meats such as ground round
Chocolate chip, Iced, or cream-filled cookies
Oatmeal cookies or fresh fruit

Monosaccharides: Glucose Blood sugar:
• Muscle cells
• Red blood cells
• Nervous system cells
• Natural sources
• Fruits and vegetables
• Grapes, berries, corn, carrots
Making “Swaps”
Approximate Teaspoons of Added Sugar (/= 1 tsp)
Less added sugar
Doughnut, cake, with frosting
Chocolate chip cookies
Sugar-frosted cornflakes
Chocolate-flavored soy milk
ce cream, vanilla
Apple pie. double crust
Blueberry muffin
Piece of dark chocolate
Cheerios with strawberres
Regular soy milk

Acceptable Daily Intakes For Some Nonnutritive
*Want to stay under these amounts

Diet cola
18 to 19 12-oz cans
9 to 12 packets
Lemon-lime soft drink
Diet cola
30 to 32 12-oz cans
6 12-oz cans

Dietary fiber (fiber)
• Most types are polysaccharides.
• Cellulose has glucose units.
• Human digestive tract cannot digest the bonds holding the monosaccharides together.
• Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, mucilages

High-fiber diets may
• Help prevent constipation
• Reduce risk of diverticula and inflamed hemorrhoids
• Reduce risk of colorectal cancer
Reduce risk of diverticula and inflamed hemorrhoids
• Reduce risk of colorectal cancer
• Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
• Soluble fiber can lower blood cholesterol level

• Choose whole grains, bran, brown rice wheat germ oatmeal
• Dietary Guidelines: Whole grains shoul grain choices

Increasing Your Fiber Intake
• Read ingredients list on food packaging to identify high-fiber ingredients
• Choose fresh, frozen, or dried fruit
• Eat more vegetables
• Consume more nuts, beans, and

Added sugars
• In 2017, average intake was about 22 †sp/day/person (United States).
According to U.S. Dietary Guidelines, daily limit is 10% of total kcal.
• 12 tsp of added sugars for a person who consumes

Low Dietary Carbohydrate Intake
Small amount of glucose is needed for efficient fat metabolism.
are chemicals that result from the incomplete breakdown of fat for energy
• Muscle and brain cells
• Ketoacidosis
Prevent excess ketone body production by meeting the RDA for carbohydrate (130 g/day)
Some amino acids are a source of glucose.
Functions of Cholesterol
• Used to produce hormones (estrogen and testosterone), vitamin D, and bile salts.
• Needed by brain cells and for cell membrane
• Dietary sources –
• Egg yolk
• Liver
• Meat
• Poultry
• Whole milk, cheese
• Ice cream
As fats cannot mix with watery fluids, the fat globules tend to
cluster together
Digestion of Fat
Small intestine: most digestion occurs here
is released to the duodenum
• Lipase breaks down fat molecules into
• two fatty acids

Dietary Recommendation
Increase essential fatty acid intakes
Meet the recommendation for essential fat intake
• Replace solid fats with vegetable oils (olive or canola)
• Omega-6 fatty acid (linoleic acid)
• Corn oil, seeds, and nuts
• Omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid)
• Fatty fish – salmon
• Flaxseeds, soybeans, and walnuts

Food Selection and Preparation
Don’t add salt while preparing food or before eating it.
Use less salad dressings.
When ordering food at a restaurant, request that no salt be added during its preparation.
Read Nutrition Facts panels to monitor types of fat.

Reducing Your Risk
Lifestyle changes – Make some swaps
• Foods low in fiber→
• White bread → 100% whole wheat bread
• White rice → brown rice
• Pasta → whole grain pasta
• Sugary cereals → whole grain cereals (Cheerios, Total)
• Fruits and vegetables (particularly the skin.)

Characteristics of Vegetarian diet
• Usually lower in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and energy
• Tendency to have lower risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and certain cancers
• Higher in fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins K and C, potassium, and magnesium


You will make a change to your diet for three days based on the principles you learned in this class. I recommend the change be small: for example, add a serving of fruit to each meal or drinking 100 oz of water. For each of the three days, you will write a
“journal entry”. At the end of the three days, you will write a one-page reflection. See attached document for details. Instructions: You will make a change to your diet for three days based on the principles you learned in this class. For each of the three days, you will write a “journal entry”. You will need to address these components in your joural entry: (1) date and time; (2) how did you implement the dietary change that day: (3) barriers you encountered to making the change; (4) successes you had making the change. At the end of the three days, write a 1-page reflection discussing: (1) what was the change; (Q) why was this change good for your health (use information we have learned in this class); (3) how it went for the three days; (4) if you will continue to implement the change. Write your journal entries and reflections?

11/6/2023 time 10:30 am Day 1:
11/9/2023 times 12:50 pm Day 2:
11/12/2023 time 2:10 pm Day 3:
1-page Reflection

This is my information on my change. You can add more information to my change.
how did I implement the dietary changes that day by switching from white rice and brown rice to whole grain bread (3) barriers you encountered to make the changes to Late Night Snacking. …
Too Much Processed Food. …
Stress Eating. …
Not Enough Time to Eat Healthy. …
Social Eating   (4) successes you had making the change not eating case food because it’s unhealthy and not cooked well meals . (1) what was the change,  the change was not eating campus dinner food and making my own meals was really healthy and changing my diet. (2) why was this change good for your health (3) how it went for the three days; (4) if you will continue to implement the change

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