Case study: Please answer the following question based on this case study, but in detail and include all references used. I have given pointers of what the main questions that need to be ordered from 1-4. I have underlined the questions and pointers are given as well that need to followed.
1) Background of the diagnosis and diagnostic criteria used (what the disease may be and analysis of how that has been identified). Describe the diagnosis and how you reached that diagnosis of the patient.Differential diagnosis laboratory parameters one that has been used to reach the conclusion.
2)Pathophysiology of the disease. Describe the immune/ hematological changes in patient and how are they contributing to the disease outcome. What changes could be taking place at DNA or at cell level, how changes in cells affect tissues and how the changes in tissues can lead to changes in physiology of the patient.
3)What diagnostic methods could be preformed . SOP style methodology but not detailed. What is the basis of this technique? What sample would need to be performed for this technique? How technique is performed.
4) Future treatment options. Using current literature knowledge, decipher what are future possibilities for this patient. the future prospects with underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of diseases and how such future possibilities can target such cellular/molecular events in patient.
A 67-year-old male presented with a history of fatigue, unintentional weight loss, and mild lymphadenopathy. Physical examination revealed enlarged cervical and axillary lymph nodes.
Hematology and Biochemistry:
Complete blood count (CBC) revealed the following results:
White Blood Cell (WBC) Count: 45,000/µL
Hemoglobin (Hb) Level: 12 g/dL
Platelet Count: 90,000/µL
Biochemistry tests showed:
Elevated LDH: 350 U/L
Normal electrolyte levels
Normal liver and kidney function
Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood was performed. The findings indicated:
Increased CD5+CD19+ lymphocytes (approximately 80% of lymphocytes)
Co-expression of CD20 and CD79b
Dim surface immunoglobulin (sIg)
These FACS results supported the diagnosis of CLL.
Cytogenetic analysis revealed:
No deletions at 17p or 11q
FISH analysis confirmed the absence of 17p deletion.
Further evaluation included testing for autoantibodies. The presence of autoantibodies was not detected.
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